Warhorse Simulations

Automated Card Tracking System: Home

Paths of Glory: BPA VIII R1G28 Complete Journal

Number of entries per page:
  Sort order:
Most recent entries first
Oldest entries first

Filter on: (filter will search Player, Title, and Entry)

View elapsed game time

Next 100 entries

Entry # Time Turn Player Title Entry
514 4/7/2019 5:08:00 AM Summer 1916 Moderator Change Moderator player Moderator player changed from Paul Hubbard to BPAPoGAdmin
513 3/5/2019 4:41:00 AM Summer 1916 Moderator Change Moderator player Moderator player changed from Paul Hubbard to Paul Hubbard
512 2/25/2019 8:36:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message The East took the stage in this game, in large part thanks to the French sitting still in the mud. I certainly could not afford to attack in the West when priority was in the East. You also stood the chance of having a high-ops hand on T11, and that would only emphasize my woes.

I probably could have kept the NE alive for a bit, but you were in the position to even threaten the Italian front with Russia!

So yeah, while I probably stood a SMALL chance of coming out of this, it doesn't look good.

Yes, please let Paul know the result. I will set up a casual match for us in a bit. Definitely glad to have met another gentleman in the hobby.
511 2/25/2019 8:33:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message Thank you for the kind words, and I do think this position is lost for CP. I think from here the NE map is going to fall, and yes having Romania enter the war was my backup plan for supplying the Russians even though I do not hold it now. I had some fears of GE counterattacks in the West, where I am much weaker than usual at this point. MEF is gone, and Ostend can probably be forced. no FR stack with trench in C-T. Not even all FR armies on the map. still, not enough compared to what is going on in the east.

I would be delighted to play a casual game. rack-em! :)

Do I send a note to Paul about the result?


510 2/25/2019 8:02:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message Hi David:

I think I will go ahead and concede here. The Germans could make things interesting for the Russians, but you are in one of the few advantageous positions I have seen in regard to bringing Romania into the war (which I imagine you are holding onto). This is something I have not seen before. Usually Romania only enters out of desperation to keep the FOTT VPs low.

By the time I curb your pressure, the Austrians will have been out of the war for longer than I would like. There might be a way to come back from this, but I am going to give you your well-earned win here.

I picked the CP because I feel I need more practice with that side, and with two rounds in the tourney guaranteed, I passed on a bid for the AP. I see where my mistakes were made, but generally speaking there were only a couple I could see. A few bad hands and lousy dice for the Austrians was no match against your skill, and so the war is lost.

Good luck in the next round. If you would like a casual match while waiting for the next round, I wouldn't mind taking the CP again for practice, so just let me know. I may slow up in the next couple months (should it go that long), but I like playing new people from time to time.
509 2/25/2019 5:53:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message 1/O. flip RUc and retreat to Poti.
advance?
RU has RP remaining, so flip RUc Poti during RP phase.


508 2/25/2019 5:51:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 2

6
2


Message from Allies:
didn't catch the attack on Batum:
CP 1C
AP 1C
507 2/24/2019 9:42:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message no discards
506 2/24/2019 9:42:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message AHc Belgrade to elim. Belgrade to AP control. limited supply source for RU.
2 BR - fiip BRc Verona. full?
2 FR - full
3 RU - flip RU10 Szeged. flip RU5 Drebrecen. full?
1 IT - (IT4) Rome.
1 A - flip AUSc in RB. flip BEc in RB.
505 2/24/2019 9:38:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Play Strategy card as Operations #18: 2 / Hurricane Barrage
A BR attack adds a +1 drm. ANA, AUS, CND, or PT do not qualify as BR for this purpose.

Message from Allies:
M:RU3 Gorlice to Pecs. Belgrade OOS.
M:RU4 Prz to Budapest
504 2/24/2019 4:14:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message Austrians as good at digging as they are at shooting.
503 2/24/2019 4:14:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 2

4
4


Message from Central Powers:
Dig:

Sofia
Cracow
502 2/24/2019 4:14:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Play Strategy card as Operations #52: 5 / Fall of the Tsar
May only be played if Russian Capitulation marker is in the "Fall of Tsar Allowed" box. Add 1 VP plus an additional 2 VP if RO is still neutral. RU Activation costs 1 OPS per unit, not space, for Combat only (even if all units in the space do not participate in attack(s).) RU corps may no longer move (can still SR) between the To Caucasus Box and the Near East.

Message from Central Powers:
T10CP6

5 OPs:

Sofia - AHc to Adrianople, armies dig
Ivangorod - GE9A to Tarnow
Breslau - GE17A, GE18A to Tarnow
Cracow - AHc to Oppeln, AH3A digs
Rize - attack Batum (1C vs 1C) **MO DONE**
501 2/24/2019 3:59:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message No big deal re: Belgrade. It's toast, along with the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
500 2/24/2019 3:59:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message OOS threat, that is.
499 2/24/2019 3:58:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message should have called out OOS on Belgrade
498 2/24/2019 3:57:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Play Strategy card as Replacement Points #30: 4 / Salonika
Allied player must SRs at least one and up to 3 BR/FR Corps (from Allied ports on the map and/or Reserve) only to Salonika (ANA, AUS, CND, or PT do not qualify as BR for this purpose). This counts as a SR action (see 9.3.3). May be played after Greek Entry provided Salonika is Allied controlled and subject to stacking limits.

Replacement points: A: 1, BR: 2, FR: 2, IT: 1, RU: 3

Message from Allies:
T10AP5
497 2/24/2019 3:54:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Play Strategy card as Replacement Points #48: 4 / Turkish Reinforcements (AoI Army)
AoI Army.

Replacement points: AH: 2, BU: 1, GE: 3, TU: 1

Message from Central Powers:
T10CP5

RPs
496 2/23/2019 11:22:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Play Strategy card as Operations #12: 3 / Entrench
Place a Level 1 Trench (not improve a Level 1 to Level 2) in any space occupied by a supplied friendly Army. Both players may now entrench. Only one player may play this card as an event.

Message from Allies:
T10AP4
M:RU9 Uzhgorod to Martin. RU3 Uzhgorod to Gorlice.
M:IT5 Tirana to Sarajevo. ITc Tirana to Nis.
M:RUc Kam-Pod to Rovno. all in on Eastern Front.
495 2/23/2019 11:13:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Play Strategy card as Event #46: 4 / German Reinforcements (17th Army, 18th Army)
17th Army, 18th Army.

Message from Central Powers:
T10CP4

Breslau
494 2/23/2019 11:11:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message could be.
flip RU10, Szeged. RU6 and RU7, only, advance.
493 2/23/2019 11:05:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message 2 LF to you

AH3A retreats to Cracow via Martin
(AHc) retreats to Zagreb via Pecs

Your choice of army to flip then advance. That may be the game.
492 2/23/2019 11:04:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 1

3


Message from Central Powers:
LF of 5

Eliminate AH7A, flip replacement AHc

Firing back on 3A
491 2/23/2019 11:03:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 1

4


Message from Central Powers:
Overly successful

Budapest:

AP firing first on 12A
490 2/23/2019 11:03:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 1

6


Message from Central Powers:
Well, here we go - flank Budapest (+1)
489 2/23/2019 11:01:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Play Strategy card as Operations #39: 2 / They Shall Not Pass
Cancels any retreat for losing a combat if defending in a non-destroyed FR fort space. A FR unit must be present in the space. Card remains face up until a combat is lost or until end of turn.

Message from Allies:
A:Miskolcz and Szeged, with flank, vs Budapest.
488 2/23/2019 9:36:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 1

4


Message from Central Powers:
Forgot your dig in Prz
487 2/23/2019 9:34:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message Wrong order

T2 in Villach
486 2/23/2019 9:34:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 2

2
3


Message from Central Powers:
Dig:

Villach
Budapest
485 2/23/2019 9:34:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Play Strategy card as Operations #41: 3 / German Reinforcements (14th Army)
14th Army.

Message from Central Powers:
T10CP3

3 OPs:

Villach - AHc to Trieste, AH2A digs
Trieste - AH7A to Budapest
Budapest - dig
484 2/23/2019 9:29:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message AHc in Novi Sad destroyed
483 2/23/2019 9:29:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 2

5
6


Message from Central Powers:
Novi Sad:

AP on 3A
CP on 1C
482 2/23/2019 9:28:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message BRc in Verona flips
CND advances to Venice
481 2/23/2019 9:28:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 1

4


Message from Central Powers:
Venice:

Rolling for CP only on 2C
480 2/23/2019 7:27:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Play Strategy card as Operations #47: 4 / USA Reinforcements (2nd Army)
May only be played after "Over There". 2nd Army, 1 corps.

Message from Allies:
A(2):Verona vs Venice. losses from BRc, CNDc advances.
M:RU6, RU7 Prz to Miskolcz. RU4 entrenches Prz.
A:RU8 destroys (AHc) Pecs no advance. RU10 vs AHc Novi Sad. no advance.
479 2/23/2019 7:21:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message nice play. it costs me 2 precious ops, immediately, for just a GEc, and destroys an important trench. If you send the army I am guaranteed success vs Trent, and am likely to end the turn with the AH army isolated and my troops back in supply.
expensive rules lesson for me! :)
478 2/23/2019 5:56:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message Move revised - see below message.
477 2/23/2019 4:52:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message got it. and done with Phosgene.
let me know when you have decided about your advance. interesting decisions!
476 2/23/2019 4:52:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message Thank you for the graciously allowed revision. You are a class act.

*REVISED LOSSES/ADVANCE*

Flip AH10A and 1 GEc
Other GEc advances to Venice via Asiago (remove AP T1).

**Udine & Maggiore temporarily OOS**

I thought VERY long and hard about sending the army through, but unless the dice gods really love me I would lose more than I gained, so I am not feeling that gutsy.

Over to you to remove Phosgene, draw a replacement card and revise your move. Thanks again.
475 2/23/2019 4:51:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Draw Extra Strategy card
474 2/23/2019 4:51:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Play Strategy card as Combat #21: 2 / Phosgene Gas
A FR attack adds +1 drm.

Message from Allies:
473 2/23/2019 4:51:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Return Strategy card to hand #21: 2 / Phosgene Gas

Message from Allies:
472 2/23/2019 4:49:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message Yep, as I said before, you can use the event now, but draw a card to replace it as you would have at the start of the round.
471 2/23/2019 4:36:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message or more precisely, it was back in my hand when it shouldn't have been! you can see in the log that I didn't undo the play. since the cost is born by me, getting these cards out is a good thing, I hope you are OK with just continuing, with respect to Phosgene. Can I use it up now, so I won't see it yet again?
470 2/23/2019 4:33:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message Oh, I see, you mean I misplayed Phosgene earlier.
469 2/23/2019 4:33:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message of course you can revise! :)


468 2/23/2019 4:32:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Play Strategy card as Operations #21: 2 / Phosgene Gas
A FR attack adds +1 drm.

Message from Allies:
467 2/23/2019 4:32:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Return Strategy card to hand #21: 2 / Phosgene Gas

Message from Allies:
466 2/23/2019 4:00:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message I might send the army through instead, but haven't decided. I do think it's fair to allow this, since I do have the option to revise and gave a take back earlier. :-)
465 2/23/2019 3:53:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message You can kill the GEc that advances with your move, but I would like to ask to revise anyway. Let me know please.
464 2/23/2019 3:51:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message I see I can cut supply to both Maggiore and Udine by revising my losses and choosing a different advance, since one of your corps had to go through Venice. I wasn't asked for the option to change my advance after your revised retreat - will you allow me to change losses and advance decision before you revise your move?
463 2/23/2019 3:11:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message We should have taken the card back earlier when you played it for ops after the CC use, and then removed it...but this isn't too big a deal I think.
462 2/23/2019 3:07:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message Recall in message #131 you used Phosgene in a combat and the module didn't permanently remove it thereafter. So, you will need to play it as "combat" here to remove it, then draw an extra card to replace it, and play a different card/move.
461 2/23/2019 2:34:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Play Strategy card as Operations #21: 2 / Phosgene Gas
A FR attack adds +1 drm.

Message from Allies:
Not likely to use this CC while the FR are sulking...
M:IT3 and ITc Maggiore to Asiago
M:RU6, RU7 Prz to Miskolcz. RU4 entrench Prz.
460 2/23/2019 2:31:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message I didn't realize that, but it is clear in the rules. all retreats create OOS threat.
Send the full strength ITc to Udine and the flipped one to Bologna.

459 2/23/2019 2:26:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message **OOS warning to Udine and Maggiore regardless of retreat**
458 2/23/2019 2:18:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message Eliminate 1 GEc, flip the other GEc, no advance.

Alpencorps stays out.

You are not allowed to end a retreat overstacked, per 12.5.5, unless I missed something. Feel free to revise. OOS warnings unless you retreat one ITc to Ravenna and one to Bologna, so let me know how you wish to proceed.
457 2/23/2019 12:22:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message 5/3. (ITc) and ITc left standing.

retreat them to Udine, where the flipped one dies.
your losses and advance?


456 2/23/2019 12:20:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 2

5
4


Message from Allies:
yeah, I thought this might be coming. SR was on my to-do list, but too much excitement in the Balkans...
Asiago:
CP 6A+2
AP 3A
455 2/23/2019 11:57:00 AM Summer 1916 Central Powers Play Strategy card as Combat #30: 2 / Alpenkorps
A GE attack to or from a mountain space adds +1 drm.

Message from Central Powers:
Asiago
454 2/23/2019 11:57:00 AM Summer 1916 Central Powers Play Strategy card as Combat #43: 3 / Von Below
Cancels all trench effects for 1 GE attack against only IT unit(s).

Message from Central Powers:
Asiago
453 2/23/2019 11:57:00 AM Summer 1916 Central Powers Play Strategy card as Operations #38: 2 / German Reinforcements (2 corps)
2 corps.

Message from Central Powers:
T10CP2 *REVISED*

2 OPs:

Nis - AH5A, AH6A to Sofia
Trent - attack Asiago w/Von Below (6A +1 vs 3A)
452 2/23/2019 11:55:00 AM Summer 1916 Central Powers Return Strategy card to hand #46: 4 / German Reinforcements (17th Army, 18th Army)

Message from Central Powers:
451 2/23/2019 10:50:00 AM Summer 1916 Allies Message Before your play, I am noticing that there is an OOS risk vs CP units in the Balkans. It isn't easy. Calls for:
Tirana to Sarajevo.
Szeged defeat and occupy Novi Sad
Skopje defeat and occupy Sofia. I think the Serbs are allowed to advance, even though they would then be OOS themselves. ITc can advance if it doesn't get hit.
It takes a 4 card, and exposes AP too, but it could result in loss of AH5 and AH6. let me know how you wish to proceed.

450 2/23/2019 9:55:00 AM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message Yes, I do still have a flipped corps - he goes to Pecs.

My CP2 remains the same.
449 2/23/2019 9:54:00 AM Summer 1916 Allies Message I will be delighted to pay up on that one!
please advance both unflipped RU armies.
correct that you still retire the last flipped (AH) to Pecs?
448 2/23/2019 9:52:00 AM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message You are correct - neither of us realized (I am used to attacks on the 6 column in our game down there).

You can change your advance decision - both AHc eliminated. My CP2 pends your decision.

You owe me a beer at WBC ;-)
447 2/23/2019 8:07:00 AM Summer 1916 Allies Message if that is really a 6 on the 9 table, it is 7LF, right?

I wish I had waited for the result before announcing advance decision...
446 2/22/2019 7:27:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Play Strategy card as Event #46: 4 / German Reinforcements (17th Army, 18th Army)
17th Army, 18th Army.

Message from Central Powers:
T10CP2

GE17A, GE18A to Breslau
445 2/22/2019 7:27:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message It would seem I can't catch a break.

5/2 AP win

Eliminate AH1A to (AHc) (2,1)
Flip RU5A

AHc retreats to Budapest
(AHc) retreats to Pecs
444 2/22/2019 7:25:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 2

6
1


Message from Central Powers:
Szeged:

AP on 9A
CP on 4A
443 2/22/2019 7:19:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Play Strategy card as Operations #38: 2 / USA Reinforcements (1 corps)
May only be played after "Over There". 1 corps.

Message from Allies:
A:Drebrecen vs Szeged. 9A vs 4A. no advance.
M:RU6, RU7 Bialystok to join RU4 at Prz
442 2/22/2019 6:56:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Play Strategy card as Strategic Redeployment #24: 3 / Libyan Revolt (TU Reinforcements)
May only be played if there are no Allied units in the Libya space. Place the SN unit in Libya. SN unit is always in supply. Space converted by the SN units are checked normally during the Attrition phase.

Message from Central Powers:
T10CP1

I don't expect anything to happen presently in Palestine, but I need to get this done regardless.

SR:

Erzerum - (TUc) to Gaza
RB - GEc to Beersheba (10,0)
Beersheba - GEc to Erzerum
Constantinople - TUc to Gaza
441 2/22/2019 5:32:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message here for about 1.5 hours, then gone. :)

440 2/22/2019 9:17:00 AM Summer 1916 Allies Message I will be away this evening. take your time. back tomorrow.
439 2/22/2019 1:45:00 AM Summer 1916 Allies Message there is also a flipped BRc in the RB. please put it to full strength. (3.0)
438 2/21/2019 10:28:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message thank you for the kind words, which I will echo back to you! an exciting game that is a long way from decided. see you tomorrow night.
437 2/21/2019 10:27:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message Maybe not without complete impunity, but it would be an ugly dance...

Next move tomorrow evening.
436 2/21/2019 10:24:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message You can lay siege to Gaza and send the BRc through without impunity. Only thing that can stop it is the Libyan SN corps, but that is probably not enough.

Gonna leave things in suspense for the evening. Great game and you are a nice opponent to play with. Nice to know I am not playing with one of the jerks in the hobby (however few they may be) :-)

Have a good evening.
435 2/21/2019 10:21:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message indeed. apologies. not expecting anything to come of it during summer, but you do have to cover

434 2/21/2019 10:18:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message I see I have an OOS warning to me at Beersheba...
433 2/21/2019 10:13:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Message good heavens! French snoozing again!
interesting game.
432 2/21/2019 10:11:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Message CP = TU
AP = ...
431 2/21/2019 10:11:00 PM Summer 1916 Allies Draw Strategy cards
430 2/21/2019 10:11:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 2

3
1


Message from Central Powers:
T10 MO

CP
AP
429 2/21/2019 10:11:00 PM Summer 1916 Central Powers Draw Strategy cards
428 2/21/2019 10:11:00 PM Spring 1916 Central Powers End Turn
427 2/21/2019 10:07:00 PM Spring 1916 Allies Message did you want me to advance turn?
426 2/21/2019 10:06:00 PM Spring 1916 Allies Discard Strategy card #6: 2 / Withdrawal

Message from Allies:
RP:
3 BR - BRc to RB. full?
3 FR - flip FRc Melun and BLD. full
4 RU - flip 3 armies Drebrecen, and give them all medals. flip RUc Kars. full
2 IT - full.
1 A - (AUSc) to RB. (BEc) to RB
425 2/21/2019 10:02:00 PM Spring 1916 Central Powers Message As I said, I am going to blame my low ops hands for the current position, combined with your keen skill and awareness of the rules.

You had 1 low ops hand as well, but on a turn where I also was low.

I don't think I have made any "bad" moves this game, even if I probably would have played T8 differently if I could take it over again.
424 2/21/2019 10:01:00 PM Spring 1916 Central Powers Message T9 CP RPs:

GE (3 + 1):
Flip (GE12A) at Brussels
2x GEc to RB (11,0)
FULL

AH (2):
Flip (AH1A) at Szeged
Flip (AHc) at Szeged
(AHc) to RB (3,1)

TU (1):
Flip 2x (TUc) at Erzerum

BU (1):
BUc to RB (2,0)

You may end turn
423 2/21/2019 10:00:00 PM Spring 1916 Allies Message interesting turn, and overall quite strong for AP even with no breakthrough. neither NE army was flipped, either, and TU losses cannot all be replaced. AH army takes big losses vs RU.

422 2/21/2019 9:57:00 PM Spring 1916 Central Powers Message Sorry, you're correct, since it is a level 2 fort
421 2/21/2019 9:57:00 PM Spring 1916 Allies Message please flip RU5, which prevents any retreat since all my units are now flipped.
420 2/21/2019 9:56:00 PM Spring 1916 Allies Message I do not believe I can advance even by flipping NE army, which I would do if it broke the line. I cannot advance with a single corps to siege a 2 strength fort, and flipping NE would still leave me flipping a corps, too. that being so, remove both corps. both armies look at each other exhausted!

419 2/21/2019 9:50:00 PM Spring 1916 Central Powers Message Sigh...too many high rolls for you...

5/2 AP win

Eliminate AH4A, flip replacement AHc (3,0)
Flip AH1A

(AH1A) retreats to Budapest via Pecs
(AHc) retreats to Pecs via Budapest

Your loss and advance?
418 2/21/2019 9:47:00 PM Spring 1916 Central Powers Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 2

6
2


Message from Central Powers:
Szeged:

AP on 6A
CP on 4A
417 2/21/2019 9:44:00 PM Spring 1916 Central Powers Message 4/4 tie

Not what I wanted, but unless you flip the NE Army you won't advance due to OOS threat.

2x TUc eliminated

Your losses and advance decision?
416 2/21/2019 9:43:00 PM Spring 1916 Central Powers Die roll request Request: 6-sided die x 2

5
4


Message from Central Powers:
Gaza:

AP on 5A
CP on 5A
415 2/21/2019 9:42:00 PM Spring 1916 Central Powers Play Strategy card as Combat #31: 3 / Kemal
A TU unit defender (SN unit does not count) with a combat factor of 1 or more may fire on the Army Table. May only be used in one Combat per turn. See also 12.3.4.1.

Message from Central Powers:
Fingers crossed, using this at Gaza

Next 100 entries

Copyright 2005 Warhorse Simulations